Welcome to my blog on residential architecture, landscape, interior design, products and real estate in Canada.
Today's piece was recently posted on my Toronto real estate site Urbaneer.com, and it's been getting a lot of attention. It shares a trend which I anticipate will have a growing presence in the urban core: replacing ageing freehold houses with newly constructed contemporary two or three-unit family-friendly condominiums! Infill projects such as these are currently few in number but I expect they'll become part of Toronto's urban fabric as small-scale developers meet the demand for low-maintenance contemporary housing in coveted downtown neighbourhoods.
Back in 2013, I wrote about the trend I'd witnessed growing - since the late 1990s - for dwellings in the central core of the city to be substantially renovated. And, by that, I don't mean just cosmetic renovations, but the sledgehammer 'gutted to the studs' kind when pretty much every building component, fixture, and finish is new. There are various factors behind this movement, which I discussed in Why So Many Downtown Toronto Houses Are Being Renovated.
This trend is partly a product of necessity, as the age of the housing stock requires extensive renovation or even rebuilding, depending on the state of the dwelling. The housing stock in the original City of Toronto (not the Greater Toronto Area) is typically well over a hundred years old, with most of it constructed between circa 1850 and 1920. A modest percentage of the facades of these dwellings today - in particular those which were built entirely with double courses of brick (as opposed to those built more economically having only a brick front) - still retain much of their architectural character, which is delightful given how visually cohesiveness a streetscape is when there is some measure of continuity in its built form. Some examples I've written about (and sold, of course) include Bay & Gable Victorians, Ontario Gothic Revival Cottages and Edwardian Residential Architecture In Toronto.
Historically, urban neighbourhoods have transformed under the pressures of gentrification, which often sees a neighbourhood in decline become revitalized; when working-class and marginalized residents are displaced as the middle class move in, with property values rising in the process.
However, gentrification is being given an entirely new dimension in the current context of the market. In Toronto, existing dwellings are being torn down and executive homes with high price tags catering to the affluent being put in their place. The result is that the original city may be primed to undergo its own 'Manhattanization' in the downtown core, as neighbourhoods are being reborn for the purposes of catering to the higher strata of income, with both the working and middle classes, being displaced.
The forces of gentrification today are not limited to working-class neighbourhoods. It now reflects the movement of the more affluent into areas ripe for asset appreciation. This includes neighbourhoods of all social statuses, including tony Forest Hill where I posted this piece back in 2015 on my sister site Houseporn.ca --> $4Million Mansions Are Being Torn Down For New $15Million Estates. When one of the more affluent neighbourhoods sees new builds garnering $15,000,000, it has a ripple effect across the rest of the city. This is now impacting the central core of the City of Toronto and reshaping its property market.
The Original City Of Toronto Was Once Home To Everyone
Much of the downtown housing stock was once home to everyone, with Toronto renown as The City Of Neighbourhoods. This included many different ethnic groups who immigrated to Toronto, concentrating in specific areas, putting down roots for two and three generations. It wasn't uncommon for some communities to alter the facades and interiors of their dwellings to reflect their cultural identities. In Toronto, many southern European communities, and in particular the Italian (in Little Italy), the Portuguese (in Little Portugal) and the Greek communities (on The Danforth) who were frequently in the construction trades - often incorporated architectural embellishments to 'Mediterraneanized' their exteriors, including angel-brick arched facades, wrought-iron fencing, fountains, stone lions (which represent the mortgage has been paid off), and religious saints - often the Madonna or Our Lady Of Fatima - placed as tiles on the facades of houses or as statues incorporated into ornamental front lawns.
Other ethnicities, such as the Eastern Europeans who concentrated in the neighbourhoods of Roncesvalles and Bloor West Villages, or the Asian communities who located near Kensington Market and Broadview Gerrard (aka South Riverdale), did not modify their properties to the same degree. These working-class immigrant neighbourhoods predominantly had life cycles spanning decades, creating a lot of stability for Toronto's downtown urban fabric, for the most part until the 1990s. As these populations aged and retired, closing up their local businesses and moving into their children's homes (often in the suburbs), these neighbourhoods became ripe for reinvention by a new profile of residents.
As I wrote in my post called 'Gentrification, Densification, And The History Of Toronto Real Estate' the forces of gentrification - originally defined as the movement of the middle class into working-class neighbourhoods causing displacement - began in Toronto in the 1970s. Reasons include a growing rejection of the suburbs for its architectural homogeneity and cultural sterility, as well as the time and congestion associated with highway commuting. The changing household structure of fewer children and two-income wage earners, including the growth of a gay subculture and non-traditional living arrangements, also made traditional suburbia undesirable. As well, the growth of white-collar service activities downtown and the decentralization of manufacturing began redefining the inner city housing market, which was now home to first-generation Canadians.
Gentrification was integral to the restoration and rejuvenation of the housing stock in Cabbagetown (home of the largest collection of Victorian homes in North America), as well as other neighbourhoods in proximity to the financial core including South Riverdale/Leslieville (the focus of my own undergraduate thesis in 1986 called Yuppie Porn: Gentrification in South Riverdale), Seaton Village, and Queen West Village (as opposed to West Queen West which would occur much later). However, although gentrification was occurring, it wasn't until the mid-1990s where the magnitude of its impact would be clearly evident.
In 1989 the Toronto housing market crashed and burned when its bubble burst. During that time, real estate values fell dramatically. In fact, in 1992 as a realtor in the early days of his career, a direct mail campaign targeting the owners of properties in South Riverdale promoting the knowledge I had gained researching my thesis generated a lot of business. It wasn't unusual to be selling houses in the neighbourhood in the low $200,000s that had previously sold in 1989 for $315,000. Property values declined upwards of 35% over that 6 year period, and it wasn't until 1995 the market stabilized and began its ascent in values.
Because real estate values had dropped upwards of 35%, and interest rates declined, the down payment required and the income to qualify for a mortgage to purchase fueled the start of the real estate boom. Furthermore, the buyers - typically younger educated professionals career-pathing in post-industrial economies - who were subject to the rising influence and power of the media in shaping consumer tastes and conspicuous consumption - desired a renovated house for ease, design and lifestyle. This set the tone for the real estate boom we've experienced ever since (here's a 2015 post called Behold The HGTV Effect On Toronto Real Estate)
Rezoning In 1996 Creates Momentum For A New Urban Spirit
After the real estate crash of 1989-1995, the City of Toronto introduced a Live/Work zoning regulation across two large swaths of the downtown core on either side of the CN Tower, with the objective of encouraging re-investment to revitalize these decaying industrial areas. The City understood it needed to respond and accommodate the emerging post-industrial economies of finance, information, technology, and services, which would serve as the foundation for Toronto's economic rebirth. As I share in my post A Short History Of Toronto’s Fashion District And Art Deco Architecture, the creation of The Entertainment District and The Fashion District, were two new neighbourhood designations on the central west side targeting these new economies. Fortunately for me, I was establishing my career in the sales, marketing and development of Innovative Spaces during this time, and aligned with some amazing development teams who were pioneering this new urban spirit.
In retrospect, Toronto had the good fortune and foresight to rezone the downtown core and reposition itself for a rebirth. And its timing was excellent. Younger educated professional Canadians embraced downtown living. Many who had grown up in culturally-specific neighbourhoods decided, when cohabitating with their partners of different ethnicities, to live downtown where it was liberal, progressive and culturally dynamic. Often first-time condo buyers, when they began having children, instead of moving to the suburbs they climbed the property ladder buying houses downtown (and in the 2010s increasingly started Raising Kids In Condos). These career-pathing double-income households - coinciding with beginnings of significant migration to Toronto from other places - set the foundation for the City's reinvention.
However, by this time many of our dwellings were obsolete and at the end of their life span, particularly those in formerly working-class neighbourhoods where properties weren’t constructed with the same level of craftsmanship and expense as homes for the merchant class and wealthy elite. Those which were located, by and large in immigrant reception centres filled with optimism, hope, and lower price tags, had now reached the twilight years of their life span. They had a lean or a slope, a cracked foundation or dry rot. The dwellings may have suffered water or termite damage, or were just too small or chopped up for our lifestyle needs. As I wrote in the Understanding The Six Essential Layers Of Property, pretty much every component of a house - whether that be the structure, skin, services, or space plan - no longer met our housing wishes, wants or needs.
While there were still a substantial number of century homes that had withstood the test of time through earlier renovations, diligent maintenance and careful repair and restoration, the arrival of the substantially 'gutted and rebuilt' residence - particularly in the central core - changed the way we view real estate, location, and its housing differentiation. After years of downtown 'village neighbourhoods' being accorded their own values based on desirability and proximity to the Financial District, the difference in property prices began to narrow. As the city's population grew and commuting times ballooned, centrally-located dwellings near public transit became coveted by urban professionals. Instead of some neighbourhoods being desirable, and others not, properties on any street could range from land value to executive pedigree, with each finding its buyer. Downtown Toronto underwent a 'new Urban Revival' where everything downtown was considered Premium and certain profitable investment.
Just two generations ago the working class earned a living wage sufficient to buy a modest residence in Toronto, the gap between incomes and property prices today makes it economically impossible. With gentrification accelerating in an affluent direction, this widens the gap and puts pressure on other low-supply, high-demand housing, like that for the missing middle. Today, the growing demand and desire for housing by the affluent is seeing these existing multi-unit vintage houses of pedigree being deconverted back into single-family dwellings (or fewer more expensive units for rent or sale), unfortunately resulting in the 'renovictions' of tenants who cannot find affordable alternatives.
Neighbourhoods Transforming As Housing Stock Rebuilt
In the Fall of 2016, it was apparent that the majority of downtown neighbourhoods - not only the coveted established areas that had long been the bastions of the middle or higher classes - were seeing many houses - in particular, those selling for under $1mil going to flippers rather than buyers climbing the property ladder from condominium housing to freehold homes. In my piece Exploring Toronto Real Estate Property Values, I noted the commodification of shelter for profit was a driving force in the city's housing economy at the expense of those seeking homes to live in. And by the Fall of 2018, although a lot of housing stock was being substantially renovated, there was a shift to newly constructed residences being built. In Ten Toronto New Builds That Recently Sold For Between $2M And $10M I proposed the original City of Toronto real estate market was experiencing a massive rejuvenation - not only through the renovation of the existing housing stock - but in the acquisition of dilapidated dwellings well past their prime in the central core that was subsequently being torn down and substantially rebuilt or newly constructed into luxury single-family residences.
Take for this example from the real estate trenches from summer 2019, where I reaffirmed the value of most freehold Toronto real estate is now predicated on what the property's highest and best use is as a potential development site today. In Should I Replace My Vintage Windows When My House Is Considered A Teardown?.
In this post, I broke down the value of one ageing property in The Beaches based on its six essential layers: the Site, Structure, Skin, Services, Space Plan, and Stuff (the furnishings). I accorded the value of the land the dwelling sat on as representing around 85% of the property's market value, the structure and building envelope valued at 7% providing they retain their integrity or require only minor repairs for if they have some utility a future buyer will keep as much of the original foundation and structure as feasible and then add/extend onto it as a 'renovation' rather than a 'new build' which is easier for getting approvals, permitting while saving on costs. And, if the services are newer to mid-life, there can be a real value of around 3% as a property which is habitable will appeal to the Buyers who would live, or rent, the dwelling while they go through planning/design, approvals/permitting, material/sourcing, and costing.
Given reinventing a property to its highest and best use can take at least a year or two for a developer, and for the end-user usually, 4 to 10 years while they save the capital necessary – before undertaking the renovation/rebuild, even when a property is purchased with the intention of tearing down the house, a buyer will pay more money if the residence is sufficiently habitable for the next 3 to 8 years while the design, approvals and permitting process is completed. After all, if a buyer can offset the acquisition cost by generating an income, or personally occupying the dwelling, it becomes a more attractive purchase. Furthermore, dwellings which are uninhabitable can be harder to finance, often requiring larger down payments. The final 5% of value in a property is in its presentation. In other words, an old decaying house that comes to market as an estate sale in 'where-is as-is' condition – that presents as 'overwhelming' - will lose the majority of buyers who don't want to undertake a huge project. If a house lacks charm, feels like every surface needs some attention to make it livable (let alone upgrade), then the pool of end-users shrinks, leaving only the renovators and opportunists to bid on it. Whereas if the property presents as 'livable' it will have a larger audience.
Given so much of a freehold property's value is in its land, most owners in the original City of Toronto should, in advance of selling, determine what a future buyer can build while potentially resolving any mitigating issues a future buyer might have. My post sharing my own journey Navigating The Committee Of Adjustment For Toronto Real Estate outlines some of the factors to explore and resolve with respect to getting approvals and, if your property has laneway access, you should explore its potential for Laneway Housing, now that the City is offering it as an as-of-right housing intensification program.
Addressing The Missing Middle
The movement towards buying homes in the downtown core for land value and rebuilt into monster homes is at odds with the efforts to create more modest homes to house the missing middle and keep the property ladder intact. Unfortunately, when a neighbourhood rejuvenates, the housing stock is often improved to serve the more affluent markets - whether for purchase or for sale - in search of accommodation. But what might potentially be created as the ideal highest and best use to serve the population at large - namely multi-unit housing - is often bound by the limitations of either archaic zoning bylaws which prohibit it or the city fees associated with redevelopment, which are time-consuming, costly (here's The Pitfalls Of Permit Fees And Toronto Real Estate) or filled with so much bureaucratic red tape that the motivation and energy required for the investment are exhaustive.
A phenomenon that is figuring heavily into the affordability and supply crisis faced by our city is a lack of space and housing for the missing middle. The lack of this supply for this segment exacerbates affordability problems. The city is feeling the pressure from pundits and associations to create housing for this need, but it needs more voters to get behind the merits of this and create political pressure.
An intelligent solution is the repurposing of land through rezoning, which I wrote about in Toronto Real Estate, Yellowbelt Zoning & The Missing Middle: Part One and Part Two. There is merit in repurposing yellowbelt neighbourhood by rethinking the existing zoning. Right now, yellowbelt land throughout Toronto is zoned for single-family housing (with secondary suites providing their front door doesn't face the street - weird, I know) which is being sold to high-earning professionals, foreign buyers, and purchasers with significant down payments (often from the Bank of Mom and Dad).
Rezoning and repurposing this land to could accommodate low-rise dwellings in a scale that is in keeping with the urban fabric of these neighbourhoods could create more affordable homes for lower and middle-income families. Unfortunately, a lot of voters are property owners who follow prey to NIMBYism, which means getting creative.
The Next Stage Of Evolution - Here Come 2 & 3 Unit Boutique Condo-Townhomes!
There is a more recent arrival to the Toronto property market which is still in its infancy but is anticipated to have a growing presence in the urban core. The trend sees replacing ageing freehold houses with newly constructed contemporary two or three-unit condominiums. This intensification of land is more recent, but given they are consistently appearing indicates this new housing form is reshaping the urban fabric of our downtown neighbourhoods. And it offers the opportunity to increase the number of units where single-family homes currently stand.
I'm a huge fan of this new housing form, as it's intensifying an existing land use into a higher density while creating an alternate housing option, particularly for buyers seeking a low-maintenance family-friendly dwelling in an established neighbourhood which feature multiple levels that 'feel more like a house', sufficient square footage (frequently including a lower level) to have different zones for living (and often 3 bedrooms), and private outdoor space including gardens and terraces. Since they first appeared in 2014, they've sold for sums from just under $1,000,000 initially, to almost $2,000,000 more recently, these new infill homes in the downtown core are still significantly less to buy than newly constructed freehold houses that are now selling for sums in the $2,500,000 to $15,000,000 price point.
These small 2 and 3 unit condominiums are located on sites which allow for duplexes or triplexes, though each of them still had to go through the Committee of Adjustment approvals process with the City of Toronto. However, if the City were to change our current policies and bylaws surrounding urban land development to allow more units having smaller square footage we could house a lot more people on sites like these. After all, these already established locations are highly coveted, so it would be amazing if the City would fast-track allowing developers to offer smaller efficiently-designed units that are more affordable.
The architectural style of these urban infill condominiums are distinctly modern: think contemporary cubes precisely arranged and stacked, with generous expanses of glazing, a monochromatic material palette, and fairly austere for their lack of adornment. While these new buildings tend not to aesthetically blend with the existing urban fabric, they're of a scale which complements the surrounding streetscape. For the most part, you wouldn't immediately recognize they are multi-unit dwellings.
And yes, these properties are condominiums. But unlike the massive complexes laden with amenities like swimming pools, fitness centres, and full-time concierges, these buildings have none of that. Instead the common fees - which are quite reasonable - are practical and intelligent. They're essentially joint savings accounts for the owners to collectively manage the property and set aside funds for future repairs and maintenance. And believe me, this is a prudent idea because a lot of the original housing stock in the City of Toronto - which is anywhere from 50 to 150 years old - requires ongoing maintenance and repairs which can easily set a homeowner $5000 to $10,000 and up annually.
After all, just the cost to update the major building components (heating/cooling, windows, wiring, plumbing and roofing) of a typical row, semi-detached or detached house in the downtown core a furnace and central air system will set you back around $5000 to $15,000 for each. And that's before tackling issues like a damp basement, zero insulation, asbestos, a dated space plan, or a tired kitchen and bath. Here are some insights facing a lot of existing homeowners of vintage Toronto housing in Dear Urbaneer: Should I Renovate My House In Stages Or Do A Full Gut?.
Check out these boutique 2 and 3-unit condo townhomes ordered by the date of completion.
170 Markham Street
This 26x133 foot property was originally a quirky vintage duplex that was once a real heart-grabber but had fallen into serious disrepair (including a past fire that left it vacant) which left no choice for the buyers but to tear it down. It was purchased in October 2011 for $679,000.
In its place, and registered as a condominium in June 2014, this 2-unit complex in the Trinity Bellwoods Neighbourhood offered buyers contemporary spaces finished with quality fittings. Well-proportioned, each unit offered four floors of living space comprising over 1800 square feet of living space, each with one car parking in a laneway garage. We featured this project when we placed the buyers in Unit A in 'April 2018 - Home Of The Month - Trinity Bellwoods'.
Common Fee (2017): Approximately $210 per month each.
Suite A (3 Bed, 3 Bath)
• Originally sold by the developer September 2014 for $1,200,000
* Listed for $1,580,000 in September 2017 for 5 days, then sold for $1,610,000 by Urbaneer.com.
• Virtual Tour here
• A MASH article on the property
• It earned the title of Toronto Life Condo Of The Week.
Suite B (3 Bed, 2.5 Baths)
• Sold by the developers in 2014 for $1,230,000.
• Listed for $2,100,000 in April 2019, then sold in May 2019 for $1,900,000.
• Virtual Tour here.
• A MASH article on the property.
25 Givins Street
Well-situated just west of Trinity-Bellwoods Park near Ossington in Queen West Village, the original 2-storey semi-detached dwelling with workshop garage was past its prime. Listed for $649,000, the property sold for $632,500 in March 2012.
The 2 unit condo townhouse with 2 car laneway garage which was constructed in its place was registered as a condominium in August 2015. Unit A is the larger of the two units, configured over 4-level and having 3beds and 2.5baths. Unit B, a 2+1 2.5bath unit had the benefit of sliding glass doors walking out to a deck, although interestingly the garden was divided by a fence built diagonally so the square footage of the outdoor space was equal.
Common Fee (2017): $200 per month
Suite A (3 Bed, 2.5 Bath)
• Sold by the original developer for $1,105,000 in April 2015.
Suite B (2+1 Bed, 2.5 Bath)
• Originally sold by the developer in March 2015 for $990,000.
• Listed for $1,499,000 in April 2017, and sold for $1,625,000.
• Virtual Tour here.
110 Palmerston Avenue
Originally home to a tiny itty bitty brick bungalow on a 20x110 foot lot with laneway access, this property was purchased for $550,000 in April 2012 by the developers.
The project - a 2 unit condo - was completed in 2015 and registered as a condominium in May 2016. Located north of Queen south of Dundas in the Trinity Bellwoods Neighbourhood, each townhouse has their own front door and rear garden space. Because our city lots tend to be narrow, these complexes typically have one unit oriented to the street with a narrower rear garden, while the other is oriented to the rear. Think two L-shaped units - as in 'L - 7' - is the footprint for the dwelling. Although criticized by some for their verticality as 'stair-masters', four floors of space allow for distinct 'zones for living' and separation between members of a family household. I promise you, any moody teen would welcome the privacy of residing in any one of these finished lower-levels.
Common Fee Per Unit (2019): $135/month
110 Palmerston Avenue A (3 Bed, 3 Bath Unit - 2207 square feet including lower level)
• Originally sold by the developer in June 2016 for $1,010,000.
• Most recently, it was re-listed for $1,665,000 in April 2020, and sold for $1,629,000.
110 Palmerston Avenue B (3 Bed, 2.5 Bath Unit - 2200 square feet including lower level)
• Virtual Tour here
• Originally sold by the developers in November 2015 for $985,000.
- Here's a MASH article on the property.
- Here's a Toronto Life article after Suite B was reduced in price.
- Criticisms of new duplexes, mentioning Palmerston.
188 Lippincott Street
Located on a 31.67x128 foot lot, the original house with laneway access was sold in as-is where-is condition as an Estate Sale in 2014 for $1,170,000.
Situated in the South Annex Neighbourhood, this 3 unit condo was completed in 2016 and registered as a condominium in 2017. Unit A (front south) comprised four-levels of which 1479 square feet were above grade with a further 483 square feet in a lower-level. Its outdoor space was limited to the front garden, though there was a rear right-of-way to the one car garage. Unit B (centre) is the largest suite, having a 3+1 bed layout with 4 full washrooms. This unit faced west with a generous garden and third-floor master walk-out. This unit was over 2500 square feet including the lower-level. Unit C was a mirror-image of Unit A.
Common Fee (2019) $520 per month for Unit B
• The Committee of Adjustment Application is here, now part of public record.
Suite A (3 Bed, 2.5 Bath)
• Sold by the developer in September 2016 for $1,100,000.
• Listed for $1,274,900 in May 2018, selling for $1,250,000.
• Virtual Tour here.
Suite B (3 Bed, 4 Bath)
* Originally sold by the developer in October 2017 for $1,400,000
• Listed for $1,610,000 in September 2019, selling for $1,610,000.
Suite C (3 Bed, 3 Bath)
• Sold by the developer in January 2018 for $1,220,000.
• Virtual Tour here.
• A MASH tracking price drop here.
161 Palmerston Avenue (2018)
Prior to redevelopment, the 2 storey semi-detached house in the Trinity Bellwoods Neighbourhood had failing building components which required significant upgrading. Being sold in as-is condition, the benefit of the property was in its broad 26x125 foot lot with laneway access. Listed for $999,900, the property sold for $955,000 in April 2015.
This 3-unit condo townhouse was registered as a condominium in July 2018, with each unit having a deeded parking space in the triple car garage. Unit A, located at the rear of the project, is the smallest of the three units at just over 1500 square feet of interior space including the lower level. Having a master suite on the second level, and an optional second bedroom suite below-grade, this unit enjoys the benefit of a private garden though some buyers would resist the access being from the public lane. Unit B, the largest of the three, is a 3bed 2.5bath unit with nearly 2000 square feet of interior space plus a third-floor roof terrace with city views. Unit C, which faces the street, is a 3bed 2.5bath townhouse comprising 1679 square feet over 4 levels. It has the front garden for use as outdoor space which doesn't have much privacy, though one could install privacy screens as I did with The Perfect Patio At My Movie House Loft.
Common Fees (2018): $260 to $305 per month based on size.
• After a successful Committee Of Adjustment Application in Nov 2015, the new residence was constructed to create three separate suites in the same building envelope:
Suite A (2+1 Bed, 2 Bath)
• Originally sold by the developer in October 2018 for $1,350,000.
• Virtual Tour here.
Suite B (3 Bed, 2.5 Bath)
• Originally sold by the developer in August 2018 for $1,300,000.
• Virtual Tour here.
Suite C (3 Bed, 3 Bath)
• Originally sold in June 2018 for $1,350,000.
• Most recently, it was listed for $1,649,000 in January 2020, selling for $1,550,000.
• Virtual Tour for Suite C here.
• This MASH article follows Suite C.
An example of what's to come.
Here's a recent sale of an end-of-rowhome sold by an elderly owner which was recently purchased for redevelopment into a small condominium --> November 2019 - Home Of The Month - A Redevelopment Site In Harbord Village.
My clients, an architect couple, purchased this property both to redevelop for personal use and showcase the direction urban housing should go. In their own words "The opportunity for the house is multipurpose. The most important aspect of it is that it provides an alternative to either, single-family houses or traditional condo living. It will be an alternative to what is currently missing as a residential building in the city. Ageing in place is important but as well, just good apartments well designed for long term occupancy is the critical feature. Apartment sizes are varied with all the apartment being 2 bedrooms or more so it appeals to different people. All of this is packaged in a small building form that will fit into the existing residential neighbourhood setting".
The evolution of our neighbourhoods and the reinvention of its housing stock is a reflection of the changing dynamics reshaping our urban environment.
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~ Posted by Steven Fudge, the purveyor of houseporn.ca and proprietor of Urbaneer.com, a division of Bosley Real Estate Ltd., Brokerage.